EM Conference Pearls (9/20)

Pediatric congenital heart disease

  • Congenital HD: Two types: Neonates with ductal dependent lesions and infants (2-6months) presents with CHF
  • Cyanosis presentation: When ductal-dependent lesion is required for pulmonary blood flow (Will not respond to oxygen)
  • Shock presentation: When ductal-dependent lesion is required for systemic blood flow (appear septic and not response to fluids, may get worse with fluids)
  • Hypoxic/cyanotic or shocky/acidotic baby treatment = Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and transfer to facility with pediatric cardiovascular surgeon.
  • PGE1 treatment may cause apnea (monitor closely and consider intubation)
  • CHF in infants = wheezing, retractions, tachypnea, sweating/crying, difficulty feeding

EBM in the ED

  • EBM = What the evidence shows in the literature + What the physician wants for the patient + what the patient wants for themselves
  • Just like we need to practice intubation, central lines –> Learning to read and interpret literature is a skill that needs to be practiced.

Aortic Dissection

  • AD: Chest pain plus disease (ex: CP + Neurodeficit)
  • If you find your self giving large amounts of strong pain meds (narcotics) while treating what is seemingly ACS…STOP..think about AD or alternative diagnosis of chest pain
  • The 3 important questions, aortic dissection is the subarachnoid hemorrhage of the torso, migrating pain, colicky pain + opioids = badness and pain that comes and goes can still be a dissection.
  • Treatment: Treat pain, HR, BP
  • Pain: Fentanyl 25 – 50 mcg bolus
  • HR: Goal of 60 bbpm
  • Esmolol 0.5 mg/kg bolus then 50 – 300 mcg/kg/min or
  • Labetalol 10 – 20 mg bolus then 0.5-2 mg/minor
  • BP control: Goal SBP =110
  • Nitroprusside 0.25 – 0.5 mcg/kg/min then titrate (CN toxicity)
  • Nicardipine 5 mg/hr
  • Warning: Giving a vasodilator without concomitant reduction in ionotropy may cause progression of dissection. Start BB first before vasodilation meds.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *