Case of the week COW #11

CC: Can’t see for 2 months

HPI: 10 year old male with no significant past medical history presents to the Emergency Dept. complaining of painless vision loss in the right eye for 2-3 months. Patient states he has been having difficulty seeing out of his right eye for 2 months despite changing positions in class, taking on and off his glasses and using eye drops. Vision loss has become progressively worse and now he can only distinguish whether lights are on or off. Mother states she did not do anything about this problem because she thought he was kidding and she didn’t’ have money or health insurance to seek medical attention. Patient has been wearing Bifocals for myopia since the age of 6, with corrective vision lenses at age 5. Denies associated trauma. Patient moved to the U.S from Nigeria 5 years ago. He lives with his mother and sister. Vaccines are up to date.

PMH/Birth History: NSVD at 39 weeks, 1 day. Birth took place in Nigeria and mother denies any infection during or after pregnancy. Following birth, patient did not have any complications such as pneumonia, eye infections or rashes.

Social History: Denies drug abuse. Denies exposure to chemicals. Denies contact with dirt, dogs or pigs. Patient did not live on a farm. As per mother, there was no domestic abuse in the family

PHYSICAL EXAM 

Vitals within normal Limits

General: In no acute distress, appears stated age.

Head: Atraumatic, normocephalic. No deformities.

Eye: Right (OD): pupil non-reactive and remains white in color and approximately 2mm. Afferent reflex is present CN II; efferent reflex is absent. There is a complete visual field defect on the right side. Visual Acuity: Can only distinguish between light and dark. Unable to count fingers at any distance or visual objects even in motion. On Fundoscopic exam, the fundus is gray/dull, with no retina visualized. ALL CONSISTENT WITH LEUKOCORIA

Respiratory: Lungs CTA bilaterally.

Cardiac: +S1/S2, no MRG, regular rate and rhythm

Abdomen: soft NT ND

Neuro exam: CN III –XII intact. No motor, sensory, vibratory, temperature or pain deficits. Gait is steady and normal, without any difficulty. Cerebellar function intact, no dysmetria bilaterally.

Extremities: Full ROM in all extremities. 5/5 strength in all extremities

Skin: No edema, rashes, lacerations, or abrasions. Skin is warm, pink, moist and intact.

LABS

CBC: Unremarkable with        WBC: 7.1     Hemoglobin: 13.5       Platelets 211.

CMP: WNL       CRP and ESR = WNL

Tonometry: IOP approx. 17-18 x 3 times

Wood lamp: No corneal abrasion, dendritic ulcers, lesions or depositions OU

Bedside U/S: Completed within 10 minutes of arrival ( Only Right eye is shown)

Working Differential Diagnosis:

  • Retinoblastoma
  • Intraocular Mass
  • Cataract
  • Syphilis
  • Parasitic infiltrate
  • Posterior Infarct

CT Max/Facial w/o Contrast to rule out intracranial pathologies: Negative for masses; positive for homologous material in the right lobe. MRI was recommended for further evaluation

ED/Hospital course:  Ophthalmologist on call was consulted, and said there was nothing more to do. Unfortunately because his vision loss was > 2 months, no life saving surgery was imminent as the retina was already detached causing ischemia to the rods and cones within it.  Patient was to follow up in ophthalmology clinic the following day. Patient’s Pediatrician was also contacted and he referred the patient to a Pediatric Ophthalmic specialist in University Hospital, with a scheduled appointment within the same week. Approximately one week ago, patient underwent surgery and the leading diagnosis was Toxocariasis as per MRI. Biopsy results to follow. As per mother, the patient is still without vision in his right eye.

LEUKOCORIA, UNILATERAL, 10 YO MALE DIFFERENTIALS

Coats disease is an exudative retinal vascular disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasias and subretinal exudation leading to serous retinal detachment. Presenting complaints include decreased visual acuity, strabismus, or leukocoria. The leukocoria in Coats disease is generally more yellow than white due to the presence of subretinal lipid. Coats disease is almost always unilateral and the vast majority of cases occur in boys. The majority of cases presenting with leukocoria are diagnosed between five and nine years of age, which is older than the majority of retinoblastoma patients.

Clinical examination: subretinal lipid and abnormal telangiectatic vessels US: demonstrates complete retinal detachment with massive subretinal lipid. Intraocular calcification is almost never present in Coats disease, another feature that helps to distinguish it from retinoblastoma.

The retinal photograph depicts bullous retinal detachment in the Left eye of a 1-year-old child with Coat’s disease simulating retinoblastoma. The magnetic resonance images confirm the diagnosis of retinal detachment and exclude retinoblastoma because of the absence of intraocular mass.

 

Toxocariasis — Toxocariasis, or visceral larva migrans, is an infection caused by the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or, less commonly, the cat ascarid Toxocara catis. There may be a history of living in an underdeveloped country, and exposure to dirt or undomesticated dogs. It occurs most commonly in children one to five years of age. Common presenting signs of toxocariasis are strabismus and poor vision. The ocular lesion is caused by the inflammatory response to the second-stage larva, which may localize in the one eye or both eyes

Chorioretinitis characteristic of toxoplasmosis. A pigmented scar is seen with an adjacent area of active chorioretinitis. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based primarily on the appearance of the chorioretinal lesion rather than serologic studies. Courtesy of James T Rosenbaum, MD.

 Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) — developmental vascular proliferative disorder that occurs in the incompletely vascularized retina of preterm infants and can lead to retinal detachment and permanent blindness. The most important risk factor for developing ROP is prematurity. There needs to be a history of prematurity, and/or mother mentions patient was on O2 for awhile.

Vitreous hemorrhage — Vitreous hemorrhage causes leukocoria when there is extensive organization of the blood into a clot before degradation. With time, the reddish hue of the blood is lost and the hemorrhage transforms into “whitish debris.” Etiology includes advanced ROP,  trauma (MOST common), leukemia or hemorrhagic disease of newborn

Retinablastoma– Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood and accounts for 10 to 15 percent of cancers that occur within the first year of life. Retinoblastoma typically presents as leukocoria in a child under the age of two years. Untreated retinoblastoma is a deadly disease; however, with advances in treatment, survival in the contemporary era is >95 percent. Most common age group is birth- 2 years. Very uncommon in children over the age of 5, although 1-2 case reports have occurred in 18 year old males

 Pearls & Takeaways:

  • Leukocoria Requires further investigation – On exam, History and Diagnostic
  • The use of tonometry, fundoscopy and ocular ultrasound are an easy, noninvasive way to add to your ophthalmic exam. Slit-lamp exam could have been considered here
  • Ocular ultrasound is really cool and fun!
  • Advocate for your patients!  Make sure they have proper follow up with a specialist
  • If any abuse or neglect is suspected, be sure to turn on “Sherlock Holmes” senses and investigate.

 

Case presented by Dr. Sarah Bolan

 

Case of the Week COW #9

CC: “Post Surgical Pain” ; Abdominal pain

HPI: 8 year old Male with PMH of Sickle Cell Disease (HbSC), Post-opt Day 10 for laparoscopic splenectomy for recurrent sequestration crises presents to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining of abdominal pain x 2 days. The pain is described as diffuse and worse in the RUQ. Denies exacerbating or relieving factors. Pain is associated with constipation; last Bowel movement was 7 days prior. Mother states he did have one small BM shortly after surgery. He is tolerating PO without difficulty and does report flatus. She has been giving him Oxycodone 2mg every 6 hours for pain with minimal relief. Upon review of systems, patient reports feeling hot for the past 2 days but without a recorded temperature at home. Additionally, patient complained of a non-productive cough for 2 days and has been “breathing fast” for the same duration of time.

Physical Exam:

BP 112/74    HR 129     RR 24   SpO2 93% on RA   Temp 99.9F      26.3 kg

Constitutional: Well developed, well-nourished child who is awake, alert and in moderate distress due to pain and feeling hot; making tears

HEENT: NCAT, pupils PERRLA, neck supple

Respiratory: CTA B/L, no wheezing, rales or rhonchi

Chest/Axilla: Normal symmetrical motion, no tenderness

Cardiac: +S1/S2, RRR, no MRG,

Abdomen: Scars noted over splenectomy site which are clean dry and intact, healing well without discharge; Diminished Bowel Sounds in all quadrants; soft, non-distended with mild tenderness in all 4 quadrants. No rebound or guarding.

Neuro exam: AAO x 3. No deficits

Extremities: no edema, no tenderness or swelling

Pertinent Labs:

CBC: 42.1

HBG: 12.5

HCT: 36.9

Platelets: 721

Seg: 79

Lymphs: 9

Mono: 12

Reticulocyte count: reported as normal

Pertinent Imaging and other tests:

Working Diagnosis:

Generalized abdominal pains

Elevated WBC

Abscess of spleen

ED/Hospital course:

Surgery was consulted in the ED and they believed the pain was not related to the surgery. Abdominal U/S performed at their request showed “s/p splenectomy with gallbladder sludge.” Patient had moderate improvement in his pain after Toradol 15mg IV and Morphine 2mg IV were given in the ED. Patient also received Rocephin 75mg/kg and NS 500mL IV Fluid bolus for presumed infection with the leukocytosis of 42.1.

The patient was admitted to Pediatric Step down for further evaluation and management. Overnight, he remained comfortable with stable vital signs, afebrile and saturating 94-96% on 2L NC. On Hospital day #1, patient became febrile to 103F and continued to deny chest pain, SOB or difficulty breathing. The cough remained unchanged since admission. A repeat Chest X-Ray was obtained and the patient was diagnosed with Acute Chest Syndrome and received exchange transfusion the same day (Refer to Image below) Additionally, he received Ceftriaxone, Azithromycin, Nitric oxide and IVF at ¾ maintenance ate throughout hospitalization. On Hospital Day #4 he was discharged home.

Pearls:

Acute Chest Syndrome

  • It is the leading cause of death in patients with SCD in the United States
  • Most often occurs as a single episode, but patients may have multiple attacks resulting in chronic lung disease
  • Multiple Etiologies
    • Pulmonary infections
    • Iatrogenic cause including aggressive hydration for sickle cell painful crisis ——à causing Pulmonary Edema
    • Opioid use —–à Decreased inspiratory effort——à Atelectasis
  • New infiltrate identified on Chest X-Ray with at least one of the following: Fever, cough, wheezing, tachypnea, chest pain, hypoxemia.
  • Radiographic changes often lag behind clinical features so initially the Chest X-Ray may actually be normal (as in our case)
  • Treatment
    • Supportive: Early Supplemental Oxygen, analgesics and IV Hydration up to 1.5x maintenance rate
    • Antibiotic irrespective of cultures
    • Transfusion is believed to be lifesaving; recommendations based on empirical observations and not on firm evidence
    • Exchange transfusion seems to be more advantageous, especially in patients with a hemoglobin of > 9.0
      • It decreases the concentration of sickled hemoglobin with little iron gain
    • Inhaled Nitrous Oxide is beneficial
      • Due to its vasodilatory effects –à improved ventilation/perfusion in damaged lung tissue
      • Reduced RBC and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, therefore affecting disease progression
    • Hydroxyurea reduces occurrence of acute chest syndrome

Case Presented by Greg Cassidy, MD

 

References:

  1. Stapczynski, J. S., & Tintinalli, J. E. (2016). Tintinalli’s emergency medicine: A comprehensive study guide (8th ed.). New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education LLC..

 

EM Conference Pearls (7/26/17)

Pediatrics Trauma Radiology Review (Dr. Flannery) – When in doubt splint

  • Salter Harris: Take home memorize classification and management
    • SH1: Clinical Dx – Splint and f/u
    • SH2: Splint and f/u, most common
    • SH3: Ortho consult
    • SH4: OR
    • SH5: OR
  • Supracondylar Fx : Take home: Type II/III requires OR
    • SC Fx type I: Look for posterior/anterior fat pads
      • Tx: Posterior splint, f/u ortho
    • SC Fx type II: Splint and Ortho consult
    • SC Fx type III: OR
  • Misc Fx
    • Greenstick fracture
    • Toddle Fx: Tx with posterior splint and out pt f/u (For non displaced)
      • When in doubt splint and f/u ortho
    • Buckle Fx: Volar splint
  • SCFE
    • Klein’s line should intersect the femoral head
    • Can be bilateral
  • SCIWORA
    • Always recheck spinal (ROM/focal findings) after a negative CT cervical

Trauma Board Review (Dr. Patel)

  • Hip/Femur fracture
    • Most are operative, recognize they are sick patients.
    • Fermoral head fx, neck fx, trochanteric (Inter/sub)
    • Pain control, Ortho consult, Most cases OR
  • Tibial plateau fracture
    • Maybe radiographically occult
    • Patella alta
  • Maisonneuve fracture
    • Proximal fibular fx + medial malleolar fracture ( or disruption of deltoid ligatment, IO membrane syndesmosis)
  • Lisfranc fracture
    • Tarso-metatarsal fracture-dislocation
    • Mal-alignment Metatarsals with cuneiforms.
  • Calcaneal fractures
    • 10% associated lumbar fractures
    • Boehler’s angle <20
  • Jones fracture: High rate on non-union
  • Pseudojones fractures: Bulky dressing and pain control
  • Hip dislocations
    • MC: Posterior dislocation (90%)
    • High rate of AVN femoral head, peroneal nerve dysfx, sciatic nerve injuries)
  • Knee dislocation
    • 50% will spontaneous reduce!!!
    • Need a good Neurovascular evaluation
    • ABI < 0.9
    • Vascular surgery/ortho eval à Arteriography or CT Angio
  • Ankle Sprain:
    • Ottawa ankle rule
  • Scapular fracture
    • Associated with concomitant injuries such as internal thoracic injuries
  • Clavicle fracture
    • Op: Open fx, unstable floating shoulder, NV compromise.
  • Radial head fx
  • Monteggia fracture
  • Galeazzi fracture
  • Scaphoid fx – Thumb spica, risk of non-union and AVN
  • Bannette’s fx – Thumb spica,
  • Rolando fx
  • Posterior shoulder dislocation: Light bulb / Drum stick appearance
  • Compartment syndrome
    • 6P’s. Money is on pain and paresthesia.
  • High pressure injury injection injury
    • Limb threatening
    • Surgical emergency

Trauma in pregnancy (Dr. Kashani)

  • Prepare for difficult airway
  • Be aware of Hemodynamic changes
  • Rh sensitization
  • >20 weeks with abdominal trauma monitor for 4 hrs
  • Peri mortem C-section best outcome if performed within 4 – 5 minutes of CPR 

Thanks to Chief Mike Hong, DO PGY-4 for writing up today’s CONFERENCE PEARLS