Case of the Week #2 – I can’t pee!!

CC: Urinary retention

HPI: 44 yo F presents with suprapubic abdominal pain since this AM. She also complains of dysuria and denies fever, chills, hematuria, vaginal bleeding or discharge, flank pain, N/V/D, CP, SOB or any other symptoms. This is her third visit to the ED in the past 3 days for urinary retention. On patient’s initial visit, she c/o pelvic pain, dysuria and urinary retention for 12 hours.  A straight urinary catheter was placed, and 2 liters of urine was drained and the pt was d/c’d home and told to follow up with her PMD. Yesterday, pt returned once again to the ED c/o urinary retention during which a Foley catheter was placed and 900 cc of urine was collected. No UTI was documented. Today, pt still c/o a sense of fullness and has been unable to urinate since 4 am despite having the Foley catheter in place and emptying the bag. Pt called her PMD last night during which he prescribed her Ciprofloxacin for a presumed UTI.

PMH/PSH: None

Meds/Allergies: None

Social: Denies

Physical Exam: Vitals: BP 130/84 P 144 RR 17 O2 sat 100% RA Temp 98.2F

General: Awake, alert, in no acute distress, comfortable
Cardiac: RRR , S1 S2, no murmurs
Lungs: CTAB, no rales, no rhonchi, no wheezing
Abd: Soft, with mild tenderness in suprapubic area. No distention. No rebound or guarding
Back: No CVA tenderness
GU: Foley catheter in place with empty bag
Extremities: No edema or rashes. Able to move all extremities
Neuro: AAO x 3

Labs

WBC: 10. 5
Hg/Hct: 13.3/40
Platelet: 215

Na: 141
K+4.6
CL –: 102
CO2: 26
BUN: 9
Cr: 0.83

Urine HCG: Negative

Urinalysis:
Ketones: Small
Blood: Small
Nitrite Urine: NEG
Leukocyte Esterase: Moderate
RBC: 0-3
WBC: 11-20
Bacteria: Rare

Imaging: 

DDX: Vaginal Mass vs Urinary Retention vs UTI

ED Course: 

Upon evaluation, the Foley catheter’s leg bag straps were fitted incorrectly causing a drainage bag obstruction. In the ED, the obstruction was resolved and catheter was successful draining urine.

The reading of the CT abd/pelvis was: CT Abd/Pelvis W/ and w/o Contrast: There is a 9.9 x 9.4 x 9.9 cm vaginal mass, which displaces the uterus cephalad, and likely the cervix and the bladder anteriorly which is quite effaced. The mass is likely centered in the mid and posterior vagina, which is worrisome for a vaginal or possibly a cervical malignancy although could be of other etiology and warrants a follow up MRI. The most worrisome component is anteriorly to the left where there is either a lymph node measuring 3.7 x 2.5 x 4.7 cm or extrusion of the mass. A left ovary is likely seen with an involuting cyst measuring 2.1 x 1.6 x 1.7 cm quite cephalad to the lesion

OB/GYN was consulted. They came down to evaluate the patient and perform a vaginal speculum exam, which revealed a small amount of malodorous thick discharge similar to pus and a palpable mass in left vaginal wall. OB-GYN recommended patient continues to take Ciprofloxacin as prescribed by her PMD and return to the Emergency Dept. in 3-4 days for re-evaluation and admission to the hospital for a Diagnostic laparoscopy

Pt returned to the ED 4 days later, during which she was admitted and underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy, Left salpingo-oophorectomy and resection of vaginal mass. Foley Catheter was inserted in operating room and pt was d/c home from Same day Surgery.

Discussion:

• Acute Urinary Retention (AUR) in women is rare. It is estimated that are 3 cases of AUR per 100,000 women per year.

• The female to male incidence ration is 1:13

• The most common cause of AUR is obstruction. In women, it is usually secondary to anatomic distortion, including pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic masses, or less likely urethral diverticulum.

• Other less common etiologies include neurogenic causes (MS, Cauda equine syndrome, metastatic spinal cord lesion, neuropathy) and infectious causes (cystitis, Herpes simplex (genital), local abscess, PID).

• Evaluation should include: UA with urine cultures, Chemistry, CBC if you suspect infection or massive hematuria, and a bedside ultrasound to verify retention. Then bladder decompression by inserting Foley catheter. Incomplete retention is PVR > 50mL and > 100mL in patients > 65 years of age

• Pearls: Urinary retention in women is rare. Think of a pelvic mass as a cause, especially if urine is clean. Have a low threshold for obtaining a CT Abd/pelvis to confirm diagnosis.

Post by: Dr. Yenis Paez-Perez, DO

 

Getting ready to intubate? Let’s pray they don’t DESATurate!

You head over to bed 44 to meet the BLS crew as they start telling you about an 82 year old man who has been having trouble breathing and is “confused” as per his family.  His oxygen saturation when you check is 76% and quicker than you can say “sepsis”, the eager resident has popped the grey airway box open and is setting up to intubate.

You slap the NRB on and turn the O2 up all the way.  So why is the resident so focused on finding and placing a nasal cannula too?!

Apneic oxygenation (AO) is used to extend the time until critical arterial desaturation (SaO2 88-90%) following cessation of breathing/ventilation that occurs during intubation.  AO, similar to our other RSI preparation, premedication, and positioning, is used to optimize the patient prior to the first intubation attempt.

First demonstrated by anesthesiologists over 50 years ago, the alveoli of the lungs will continue to take up oxygen even in the absence of active breathing.  AO focuses on increasing a patient’s oxygen saturation through “nitrogen washout” in first the alveoli, and then throughout the circulation.  This effectively replaces the nitrogen one inhales in normal atmospheric air with oxygen and increases the patient’s overall oxygen storage in both the lungs (95% of a person’s natural reservoir) and bloodstream.  Maximizing pre-oxygenation provides us an additional buffer of time for “safe apnea” during oral intubation.  In a 2011 article in the Annals of Emergency Medicine, Weingart et al outline recommendations to reduce the risk of hypoxemia during emergency tracheal intubations which include emphasis on:

Pre-oxygenation for every patient

  • Nasal Cannula set at 15 L/min is the most effective method of AO
  • Non-rebreather mask at rates as high as possible
  • HOB elevated 20-30 degrees or Reverse Trendelenburg in suspected C-spine injuries
  • Minimum of 3 minutes total or 8 deep breaths, if possible

Take home:  Keep in mind the acronym “NO DESAT” which stands for “Nasal Oxygen During Efforts Securing A Tube”.  A nasal cannula with high flow rates should be placed on every patient prior to endotracheal intubation and left in place during attempts in order to reduce the risk of hypoxemia and deterioration.

TLC: Triple Lumen Complications

Placing central venous cathethers, whether under ultrasound guidance or based off of your landmarks can be difficult and still prone to many complications.  With the increased use and now standard of care for placing central lines with ultrasound guidance you would think we are immune to the “catastrophic” complication of an inadvertent arterial cannulation.  But does ultrasound make us infalliable? Are there other methods that we can use to confirm venous placement of these large catheters?

Traditionally, we have looked at the color and pulsatility of blood coming from the needle hub before placement of the guidewire, but as you can imagine this is known to not be the most reliable; most of us aren’t going to go through the hassle of checking a blood gas off that blood either.

Troianos et al. found that ultrasound guidance reduced the incidence of arterial puncture from 8.4% down to 1.4% during attempted IJV cannulation.  That’s great that it decreased the incidence, but when looking at the complications such as airway obstruction, hemothorax, pseudoaneurysms, AV fistulas and stroke, 1.4% is not something to sneeze at.  So, keep in mind that although it does reduce the frequency of arterial puncture, it does not eliminate it entirely!

Despite the use of dynamic ultrasound guidance, there are still numerous reports of arterial placement of large bore catheters due to a couple reasons: 1. The needle tip may not be seen in the same plane of the ultrasound and confused with the shaft of the needle.  2. The needle may be in the vein, but the needle may move into the artery during placement of the guidewire after most of us have abandoned the ultrasound visualization.  Ideally, after the guidewire is placed we should make it a habit to confirm the guidewire is in the vein before dilating the vessel.

Management of Arterial Cannulation

Despite our best efforts and even the most astute ultrasonographer there is always the potential for an inadvertent arterial cannulation, but what do we do once we have figured that out?

Option 1: Just old fashioned PULL AND PRESSURE: essentially this is exactly as it sounds. You pull out the catheter and apply pressure, just like any other line that is being removed. This is probably most reasonable for femoral artery cannulations, but there still remains a possibility of false aneurysms and AVF as late as 2 weeks after removal with the pull and pressure technique.  Pull and pressure isn’t supposed to be used for carotid or subclavian arterial cannulations.  One convincing piece of evidence is that there is an immediate stroke risk of 5.6% after removing carotid cannulations with this technique.  Of 11,874 internal jugular vein cannulations, 20 ended up being carotid artery cannulations.  19 of these 20 were removed using the pull and pressure technique; six patients suffered complications and two of the patients died.

Option 2: Surgical ENDOVASCULAR repair:  The more preferable method, especially for removal of carotid and subclavian arterial cannulations, is to involve our vascular surgeon colleagues.  Just leave the line secured to the neck and get them involved. Some are going to request a formal ultrasound of the carotid or even sometimes a CT angio of the neck to check for extravasation, pseudoaneurysms, AVF and the location of the catheter.

Key points to remember

  1. Arterial cannulation can occur despite use of ultrasound guidance
  2. The American Society of Anesthesiologit’s guideline for CVC placement states that color and pulsatility are NOT reliable for distinguishing vein from artery.
  3. The pull/pressure technique is associated with significant risk of hematoma, airway obstruction, stroke, and false aneurysm especially when the site of arterial trauma cannot be effectively compressed
  4. Low IJV placement can injure the subclavian or innominate arteries
  5. Endovascular treatment is safe for management of arterial injuries that are difficult to expose surgically, such as those below or behind the clavicle.
  6. Normal Carotid Duplex after removal of a catheter form carotid artery does NOT rule out the possibility of a stroke
  7. False aneurysms or AV fistulae can occur LATE, up to 2 weeks after the “pull and pressure” technique so close follow up is needed

Post by: Dr. Yenis Paez-Perez, DO

 

 

Throwin’ shade at the POKER Trial

There’s been a lot of chatter in the twitterverse surrounding the recent release of the POKER Trial out of Australia comparing ketofol with propofol for procedural sedation.  Their primary outcomes were looking at respiratory complications, including apnea, desaturation or hypoventilation; with secondary outcomes of hypotension and patient satisfaction.  They report “ketofol and propofol resulted in a similar incidence of adverse respiratory events requiring intervention by the sedating physician.” While this is true based on their data, when you start breaking down the airway interventions, propofol did require more instances of the patient requiring assisted ventilation with a BVM.  Call me crazy, but to me that seems a little more of an intervention than just turning up the oxygen flow on the nasal cannula.  Propofol also had a greater rate (8%) of hypotension (SBP<90) when compared to ketofol (1%), and while there were no clinically significant outcomes related to this hypotension, I think it’s still important to note.  It seems like a lot of shade is being thrown (definition here) at ketofol after this trial, but I haven’t closed the door on ketofol yet.  I would still give ketofol a chance, I much prefer not having to bag my shoulder reductions as the propofol wears off and while a BP of 70/40 may not stroke them out in front of you, it still gets my heart rate up a bit.

Post by: Terrance McGovern DO, MPH (@drtmcg)

Gone fishin’

The weather is finally starting to warm up and the fish are biting.  Unfortunately, amateur and pro fishermen alike will also either catch themselves or their friend while out on the waterways this summer.  While a small fishhook lodged in a finger may seem trivial compared to some of the more traumatic injuries we see, the process of removing a fishhook can still be challenging and time consuming.  In this month’s issue of ACEP Now we published four different ways of removing these pesty hooks. Check it out here. 

Post by: Terrance McGovern DO MPH (@drtmcg13)